A Peace Treaty Minus One Red Cloud’s War ended in 1868—but without Red Cloud’s signature.

Chief Red Cloud True West
Sioux leader Red Cloud

For two long years, the northern Plains Indians fought the U.S. army over a series of forts along the Bozeman Trail.  The conflict was called Red Cloud’s War after the Sioux leader who helped design the hit and run campaign that kept the whites on their heels.

The two sides agreed to end the war with a treaty signing on April 29, 1868.  But there was one person missing: Red Cloud himself.  He refused to sign until the army abandoned the forts in question.  That was done, and Red Cloud agreed to peace in November of that year.

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Mark Boardman

Mark Boardman is the features editor for True West Magazine, a former managing editor for Western Shooting Horse Magazine and the chief purveyor of ScarletMask Enterprises.