Spotted Tail was a Brule chief in Wyoming Territory. He was involved in the Grattan Massacre, in which 29 soldiers were killed. Spotted Tail then led Indians during the First Sioux War. In 1855, to avoid further bloodshed, he surrendered to U.S. officials. He expected to be executed, a sacrifice to protect his people. Instead, after being held for a year, Spotted Tail was freed. He became a great leader of his people for the rest of his life—and refused to go to war again against the United States.