January 18, 1863–US troops torture and murder Apache war chief Mangas Coloradas in southwest New Mexico. He had come to them under a flag of truce, but General Joseph Rodman West betrayed the Apache.
After Mangas’ death, the soldiers removed his head and sent it east for examination (illustration). But it was lost. To the Apache, that meant that the great warrior could not enter the afterlife. The bitter feelings made the upcoming Apache wars even worse.