The Reds, the Blues and some questionable votes.
In 1873, Texas Democratic Party boss Stephen Powers formed the Blue Club, a social organization aimed at getting out the vote—with dances, barbecues, ice cream socials and more. Republicans answered in kind, forming the Red Club. It led to some questionable electioneering. Under Texas law, a male alien could vote by declaring his intent to become a U.S. citizen. Both parties bused in Mexicans from across the Rio Grande, plying them with liquor and more to help stuff the ballot boxes. Mexican nationals voted in Texas elections until the laws were changed in 1927.