niobrara river valley with trees and kayaks true west magazine
The Niobrara River Valley, the traditional home of the Ponca Indian tribe, is a popular area of recreation along Nebraska’s Highway 12 between Niobrara and Valentine.
— M. Forsberg, Courtesy Nebraska Tourism —

Indian removal doesn’t get the coverage of Indian conflict. To wit, Google searches on “Ponca” netted 5.2 million hits, compared with 239 million for “Sioux” and 204 million for “Cherokee.” “Crazy Horse” garnered 20.6 million hits, and “Trail of Tears” got more than 7.7 million. But “Standing Bear” totaled only 609,000.

That’s a shame because the forced removal of the Ponca Indians from their northern Nebraska homeland ranks among the most tragic. After all, white man’s greed led to the expulsion of the Cherokees from the Southeast. But the Ponca people lost their land to, at best, a clerical error. And while fighting Indian leaders like Crazy Horse deserve all the respect they can get, Standing Bear fought a battle, too, except in a courtroom—and his victory was important for every American Indian. Standing Bear et al v. Crook also led to the formation of organizations (Women’s National Indian Association, Indian Rights Association and others) and the beginnings of pro-Indian movements that are still fighting for Indian rights nationwide in 2019.

“I see Standing Bear as the catalyst for this late 19th-century Indian reform movement,” says Spur Award-winning historian Val Mathes, co-author, with Richard Lowitt, of The Standing Bear Controversy: Prelude to Indian Reform.

But Standing Bear still doesn’t get enough attention.

The Nebraska Commission on Indian Affairs seeks to change that as it works to achieve designation of a national Chief Standing Bear Trail that would lead from Standing Bear’s Nebraska homeland, through Kansas and into Oklahoma ( provides background, history and an interactive trail map).

Tragedy begins

standing bear and family historical photograph true west magazine
Standing Bear (left, standing) is shown with his family in this 1903 photograph, nearly 25 years after his 1879 trial that ruled an “Indian is a person” and declared the U.S. Army’s arrest of him and other Poncas unlawful.
— True West Archives —

The Poncas’ Trail of Tears had its beginnings with the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868, in what authors Ronald C. Naugle, John J. Montag and James C. Olson call in History of Nebraska, “the Poncas’ greatest tragedy.” By honest mistake or “dastardly deception,” the Ponca reservation north of the Niobrara River in present-day Nebraska was included in the Great Sioux Reservation.

Mistake or not, the Department of the Interior made no effort to correct the error, and on May 16, 1877, the first group of Poncas set out, on foot, for the northeastern corner of Oklahoma. The first child died four days later.

You can start your journey today in Niobrara, where the Ponca Tribal Museum and Library displays photographs and historical items—including headdresses, carvings and beadwork, much of it repatriated from Washington’s Smithsonian Museum in 1999.

Storms plagued the Poncas on their march south and east. Another child died on May 23. By May 29, they reached Columbus (Platte County Museum) and rested a few days. On June 5, near Milford, Standing Bear’s daughter, Prairie Flower, died and was buried, possibly in the Mt. Pleasant Cemetery or perhaps in Milford.

The following evening, a tornado injured many Poncas. Worse, Standing Bear’s granddaughter died on June 8 and was reportedly returned to Milford for burial. They kept moving south and east, through Beatrice and into Kansas—Marysville (Pony Express Barn), Manhattan (Riley County Historical Museum), Council Grove (Kaw Mission State Historic Site), Emporia (Red Rocks State Historic Site)—before reaching their new home three miles south of Baxter Springs, Kansas (Baxter Springs Heritage Museum), near Quapaw, Oklahoma, on July 11. Nine Poncas, including six children, had died.

When Oklahoma wasn’t OK

general crook house omaha nebraska true west magazine
As the U.S. Army’s Platte Valley Department Commander, Brig. Gen. George Crook played a key role in Standing Bear’s victory in court. Today, visitors to Omaha’s General Crook House and the adjacent Douglas County Historical Society, can learn firsthand about the general’s role in the trial of Ponca Chief Standing Bear.
— George Crook Photo Courtesy Library of Congress —

Things worsened; disease killed 158 by the new year. In the winter of 1878, Standing Bear’s dying son, Bear Shield, asked to be buried on the Niobrara. Like most fathers, Standing Bear wasn’t one to deny his son’s last request.

On January 2, 1879, Standing Bear led 27 Indians for their home country. In late February, Omaha Indian leaders brought the refugees into their reservation. The secretary of the interior ordered the arrest and return of the Poncas, a job that fell to Gen. George Crook. The Poncas surrendered and were brought to Fort Omaha.

And history took a giant step forward.

general george crook photo true west magazine
Brig. Gen. George Crook.
— True West Archives —

“If we can do something for which good men will remember us when we’re gone, that’s the best legacy we can leave,” Crook reportedly told Thomas Henry Tibbles, the Omaha Daily Herald’s deputy editor, who recorded his memoir, Buckskin and Blanket Days, in 1905.

Tibbles found two attorneys, John Lee Webster and Andrew Jackson Poppleton, who were intrigued at the possibility of using the 14th Amendment to protect an Indian’s rights. With Crook’s consent, the attorneys filed a writ of habeas corpus—making the general out as the bad guy—on April 8.

Trial of the century

At the old fort grounds, now the Metropolitan Community College campus, the General Crook House Museum and the neighboring Douglas County Historical Society, offer excellent looks at Crook and the Standing Bear case.

ponca indian tribe of nebraska dancer true west magazine
Visitors attending the Ponca Indian Tribe of Nebraska’s 26th Annual Powwow at the Ponca Tribal Powwow Grounds in August 2019 should schedule time to walk the Ponca Educational Trail at the Ponca Community Learning Center and tour the Ponca Tribal Museum, which is open Mondays through Fridays, in Niobrara.
— Courtesy Nebraska Tourism —

That case went before Judge Elmer Scipio Dundy on May 1-2, 1879, and ended when Dundy allowed Standing Bear to address the court. Using an Omaha Indian woman, Suzette LaFlesche (aka Bright Eyes), as his interpreter, Standing Bear told the judge: “The same God made us both.”

trail of tears indian removal plaque kaw mission historic site true west magazine
The Ponca Indian tribe on their Trail of Tears from their homeland in the Niobrara River Valley to Quapaw, Oklahoma, stopped in Council Grove near the Kaw Mission, today a state historic site that interprets the sad reality of Indian removal from Nebraska and Kansas to the Indian Territory.
— Courtesy Kansas Tourism —

On May 12, Dundy issued his ruling that “an Indian is a PERSON” and that “Indians have the inalienable right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”

An appeal was filed, but the Supreme Court refused to hear the case.

Pros and cons

Ponca Indian squaw dance.

The ruling proved costly, however, for the Poncas. “Because of the decision,” Mathes says, “…Standing Bear and those who had accompanied him and his wife on their flight from the Indian Territory to their former Nebraska homeland were now homeless.”

standing bear museum oklahoma true west magazine
After relocation to Oklahoma (the Indian Territory in 1877), a portion of of the Ponca Indian tribe settled and made the new land their home. Today, visitors to the Standing Bear Museum and Education Center can learn about the tribe’s culture and its leader.
— Photo of Standing Bear Museum Courtesy —

Eventually, the Poncas split into two tribes: The Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma, based in Ponca City—where Oreland C. Joe’s 22-foot bronze statue of Standing Bear dominates the Standing Bear Museum and Education Center—and the Ponca Tribe of Nebraska.

standing bear statue ponca city oklahoma true west magazine
The Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma in Ponca City honors Standing Bear with a 22-foot statue of the courageous Indian leader in front of the Standing Bear Museum and Education Center.
– Courtesy –

Standing Bear died in 1908 and was buried in his homeland.

“To me, personally, the most important result of Standing Bear was the involvement of Helen Hunt Jackson in Indian reform,” Mathes says. “Jackson attended one of his lectures in the fall of 1879. His description of the hardships his Ponca tribe endured during their removal to the Indian Territory in 1877 so troubled Jackson that she spent the final six years of her life researching and writing about the government’s treatment of all tribes. Her A Century of Dishonor presented the history of seven tribes, including the Poncas.”

Johnny D. Boggs recommends the Joslyn Art Museum in Omaha and the Missouri National Recreational River near Niobrara.

Related Articles

  • the-indian-agent

    Months after Crazy Horse’s savage death, Gen. Crook can’t agree with the implacable Chief Red…

  • In this latest installment of Boggs’s Killstraight series, Kill the Indian, Daniel Killstraight heads to Texas…

  • indian_war_veterans

    As an ex-WWII private first class, I applaud Greene’s editing of these memoirs. Greene shoots…